Glucose; this is the measurement of the sugar level in the blood. Blood glucose levels are usually only a problem for patients who have diabetes.
Potassium; is an enzyme which helps to regulate the water balance and the acid base balance in the blood and tissues, but more importantly it helps to generate muscle contractions and regulate the heart beat. Potassium depletion may occur through excessive renal excretion or due to long term use of diuretics
Sodium; keeps water in the body and helps to control the blood pressure. It is regulated by the kidneys and adrenal gland. The most common cause of low sodium is due to diuretic usage.
Bicarbonate; readings will indicate whether there is too much or too little acid in the blood. Acid is a waste product of food which is normally removed by the kidneys.
Calcium; is a mineral that helps strengthen bones
Urea; is a waste product produced by the liver and secreted by the kidneys. High values may indicate that the kidneys are not working as well as they should be.
Creatinine; is a waste product largely from muscle breakdown. High values may indicate problems with the kidneys
Enzymes; are proteins which help all the chemical activities within cells to take place. Injury to the cells release these enzymes into the blood.
alkaline phosphates found primarily in the bones and the liver. High values are expected for those who are growing i.e children or when damage to bones or liver has occurred or with gallstones.
AST/ALT are also liver and muscle enzymes. They may be elevated due to liver problems such as hepatitis and excessive alcohol ingestion, muscle injury and recent heart attacks
CPK is useful for diagnosing diseases of the heart. This enzyme is the first to be elevated after a heart attack (around 3 to 4 hours).
bilirubin is a pigment removed from the blood by the liver. Elevated results are an indication of blockage of the bile duct, liver damage, erythrocyte hemolysis in the newborn as well as by the effects of certain drugs.
Albumin and globulin; measure the amount and type of protein in the blood. They are a general index of the overall health and nutritional state of an individual. Globulin is the "antibody" protein important for fighting disease.
C Reactive Protein; is a marker for inflammation. It has traditionally been used to assess inflammation in response to infection.
White Cell Count; as the name suggests, this is the amount of white cells contained in the blood. A high count can be a sign of infection, and can also be seen in certain leukemias. A low count can be a sign of bone marrow disease or an enlarged spleen
Haemaglobin (Hb); this is the amount of oxygen carrying protein contained within the red blood cells. Low Hb suggests anaemia, which can be due to nutritional deficiencies, blood loss, destruction of blood cells internally or failure to produce blood in the bone marrow. High Hb results can be due to lung disease, living at high altitudes or excessive bone marrow production of blood cells.
Platelets; these are the cells which "plug" up holes in the blood vessels to prevent bleeding. A high result can occur from premature destructive states such as immune thrombocytopenia, acute blood loss,bone marrow failure, entrapment of platelets in an enlarged spleen or the effects of some drugs such as heparin.